They're in a range of consumer products -- everything from toothpaste and yogurt to fabric softeners and insoles for shoes. But what puts the spring, the elasticity in gels? New research has found the answer.
Researchers describe what happens when Yellowstone -- adapted to recurring fires every 100 to 300 years -- instead burns twice in fewer than 30 years. Yellowstone as we know it faces an uncertain future, the researchers say, and one of the big questions they hope to answer is whether the forests can recover.
Using a technique called structured expert judgment, researchers asked 22 ice sheet experts to estimate plausible ranges for future sea level rise due to the projected melting of each of the Greenland, West Antarctic and East Antarctic ice sheets under low and high future global temperature rise scenarios.
Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have discovered that blocking a specific protein, may be a promising strategy to prevent the spread of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Scientists and engineers develop a portable spectrometer able to capture far more data much quicker than other fiber-based systems. The TuLIPSS camera will be useful for quick analysis of environmental and biological data.
Reversibly paralyzing and heavily sedating hospitalized patients with severe breathing problems do not improve outcomes in most cases, according to a clinical trial conducted at dozens of North American hospitals. The trial -- which was stopped early due to futility -- settles a long-standing debate in the critical care medicine community.
Tourism and hospitality firms that score highly for leadership and cultural values see higher staff satisfaction, according to a new study. Researchers analyzed almost 298,000 online review ratings by employees for 11,975 firms in the US to find the key elements of job satisfaction and employee turnover in high-contact services.
Researchers have discovered a long-sought protein, the proton-activated chloride channel (PAC), that is activated in acidic environments and could protect against the tissue-damaging effects of stroke, heart attack, cancer and inflammation. The researchers believe the discovery of this protein could provide a new drug target for potential therapies for stroke and other health issues.
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ZAR1 also contributes to resistosome pentamerization by forming an α-helical barrel that interacts with the leucine-rich repeat and winged-helix domains. Structural remodeling and fold switching during activation release the very N-terminal amphipathic α helix of ZAR1 to form a funnel-shaped structure that is required for the plasma membrane association, cell death triggering, and disease resistance, offering clues to the biochemical function of a plant resistosome.