Around half of trials that supported new cancer drug approvals in Europe between 2014 and 2016 were judged to be at high risk of bias, which indicates that treatment effects might have been exaggerated, concludes a new study.
Humans choose food based on the way it looks, smells, and tastes. But the microbes in our guts use a different classification system -- one that is based on the molecular components that make up different fibers. Investigators found particular components of dietary fiber that encourage growth and metabolic action of beneficial microbes in the mouse gut.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the build-up of fat in the liver due to factors other than alcohol, but its cause remains unknown. Now, researchers have linked NAFLD to gut bacteria that produce a large amount of alcohol in the body, finding these bacteria in over 60% of NAFLD patients. Their findings could help develop a screening method for early diagnosis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver.
Structures known as 'time crystals' -- which repeat in time as conventional crystals repeat in space -- have recently captured the interest and imagination of researchers across disciplines. The concept has emerged from the context of quantum many-body systems, but physicists have now developed a versatile framework that clarifies connections to classical works dating back nearly two centuries, thus providing a unifying platform to explore seemingly dissimilar phenomena.
New research suggests that over the next few decades, acting to reduce climate change is expected to cost much less than the damage otherwise inflicted by climate change on people, infrastructure and ecosystems.
Researchers explored a type of material in which the electrons behave according to the mathematical rules of topology. They found topological behaviors of electrons in a three-dimensional magnetic material at room temperature, opening new avenues of future study.
To best serve the clinical needs of individuals with MS, neuropsychological testing needs to be viewed in larger context comprising non-cognitive variables, such as motor ability and demographic values, fatigue and depression, and disease activity and level of disability, as well as person-specific factors such as personality and coping styles.
About 1 in 3 diabetic patients develops diabetic retinopathy (DR), which can impair vision and lead to blindness. A new study provides clear evidence that high glucose increases the levels of enzymatic precursor -- lysyl oxidase propeptide (LOX-PP) -- that promotes cell death, which was verified in an animal model of diabetes. These findings may help develop novel DR treatments by targeting LOX-PP or its metabolites.
The appeal of developing improved drugs to promote helpful reactions or prevent harmful ones has driven organic chemists to better understand how to synthetically create these molecules and reactions in the laboratory. A team has taken a step toward making this wish a reality with their latest study.
The E75 protein is a key regulator of some biological rhythms through interactions with nitric oxide. Suppression of E75 results in longer molt cycles and reduced numbers of offspring in the water flea, Daphnia magna. The work also raises questions about the ability of nitric oxide from environmental sources to disrupt biological rhythms that are critical to population sustainability.
Studying the complex layers of immunity in maize, a staple for diets around the world, scientists have identified key genes that enable surprisingly diverse antibiotic cocktails that can be produced as defensive blends against numerous disease agents. Biologists describe how they combined an array of scientific approaches to clearly define 6 genes that encode enzymes responsible for the production of key maize antibiotics known to control disease resistance.
New research has identified characteristics and gender-specific behaviors in kids that could lead them to become juvenile hackers. The researchers assessed responses from 50,000 teens from around the world to determine predictors of hacking and are the first to dig into gendered differences from a global data set.
The complexity of molecular structures in the cell is amazing. Having achieved great success in elucidating these structures in recent years, biologists are now taking on the next challenge: to find out more about how they are constructed. A new research project now provides insight into a very unusual construction process in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei.
Proteins are essential for every living cell and responsible for many fundamental processes. They are required as biocatalysts in metabolism and for signalling inside and between cells. Many diseases are due to failures in this communication, and the origins of signalling in proteins have been a source of scientific debate. A team has observed the mobile protons that do this job in every living cell.
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ZAR1 also contributes to resistosome pentamerization by forming an α-helical barrel that interacts with the leucine-rich repeat and winged-helix domains. Structural remodeling and fold switching during activation release the very N-terminal amphipathic α helix of ZAR1 to form a funnel-shaped structure that is required for the plasma membrane association, cell death triggering, and disease resistance, offering clues to the biochemical function of a plant resistosome.