An experimental medication that was recently shown to slow the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has now demonstrated the potential to also prolong patient survival. The findings come from a recent clinical trial.
A new study examines how trees respond to different urban intensities by comparing tree size and age, foliage nitrogen signature, nutrient and heavy metal content and other factors in forests. Not only were the trees acclimated to urban conditions in the higher density Philadelphia forests, but the red maples there were actually healthier and more productive compared to those surrounded by less urbanization in Newark.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) -- a process in which tumors become resistant to multiple medicines -- is the main cause of failure of cancer chemotherapy. Tumor cells often acquire MDR by boosting their production of proteins that pump drugs out of the cell, rendering the chemotherapies ineffective. Now, researchers have developed nanoparticles that release bursts of calcium inside tumor cells, inhibiting drug pumps and reversing MDR.
With antibiotic-resistant superbugs on the rise, this research shows a new way that cells are using to protect themselves - using fats as a covert weapon, and giving us new insights into alternative ways to fight infection.
Sea floor sediments of the Arctic Ocean can reveal how permafrost responds to climate warming. Researchers have found evidence of past permafrost thawing during climate warming events at the end of the last ice age. Their findings caution about what could happen in the near future: Arctic warming by only a few degrees Celsius may trigger massive permafrost thawing, coastal erosion, and the release of greenhouse gases.
A system developed by chemical engineers could provide a way of continuously removing carbon dioxide from a stream of waste gases, or even from the air. The key component is an electrochemically assisted membrane whose permeability to gas can be switched on and off at will, using no moving parts and relatively little energy.
When COVID closed down their lab, a team of researchers turned to computational approaches to understand what makes some plants better adapted to transform light and carbon dioxide into yield through photosynthesis. Most plants use C3 photosynthesis, which is more common but not as efficient as C4. The researchers uncovered clues as to how C4 crops are able to express key enzymes in specialized cells that increase photosynthetic efficiency.
A new study makes clear the extraordinary speed and scale of increases in energy use, economic productivity and global population that have pushed the Earth towards a new geological epoch, known as the Anthropocene.
Researchers have been able to create optical framed knots in the laboratory that could potentially be applied in modern technologies. Their work opens the door to new methods of distributing secret cryptographic keys - used to encrypt and decrypt data, ensure secure communication and protect private information.
Researchers found that bacteria essential to ripening cheese can sense and respond to compounds produced by fungi in the rind and released into the air, enhancing the growth of some species of bacteria over others. The make-up of the cheese microbiome is critical to flavor and quality of the cheese.
Thin tissue grafts and flexible electronics have a host of applications for wound healing, regenerative medicine and biosensing. A new device inspired by an octopus's sucker rapidly transfers delicate tissue or electronic sheets to the patient, overcoming a key barrier to clinical application.
Fast and reliable internet access is fundamental for research and development activity around the world. Seamless connectivity is a privilege we often take for granted. But in developing nations, technological limitations can become stumbling blocks to efficient communication and cause significant disadvantages.
People with multiple sclerosis (MS) gradually develop increasing functional impairment. Researchers have now found a possible explanation for the progressive course of the disease in mice and how it can be reversed. The study can prove valuable to future treatments.
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ZAR1 also contributes to resistosome pentamerization by forming an α-helical barrel that interacts with the leucine-rich repeat and winged-helix domains. Structural remodeling and fold switching during activation release the very N-terminal amphipathic α helix of ZAR1 to form a funnel-shaped structure that is required for the plasma membrane association, cell death triggering, and disease resistance, offering clues to the biochemical function of a plant resistosome.