Researchers use deep learning to reduce noise in the electrical current data collected from nanopores, which may lead to higher precision measurements when working with very tiny experiments or medical diagnostics.
Whether it's plankton exposed to parasites or people exposed to pathogens, a host's initial immune response plays an integral role in determining whether infection occurs and to what degree it spreads within a population, new research suggests.
Using an epigenetic clock, the researchers looked at the genes of 45 of those who were ELBW babies along with 47 who were normal birth weight when they were age 30 to 35 to compare their biological age, controlling for chronic health problems and sensory impairments.
A rare syndrome has been observed in people following vaccination against COVID-19. This involves thrombosis at unusual sites in the body, associated with a low thrombocyte count and a clotting disorder. In medical jargon, this syndrome is referred to as VITT (vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia). Doctors at MedUni Vienna and Vienna General Hospital have now successfully treated an acute instance of this syndrome.
Researchers have found several grape varieties native to Cyprus, which tolerate drought conditions better than some international varieties popular in Australia, contain chemical compounds responsible for flavors preferred by consumers.
Despite lower exercise volume, HIIT was as effective as endurance running for improving exercise capacity and spatial memory. Researchers found that activity-specific physiological adaptations in the muscles and increased signaling and neurogenesis in the hippocampus underlie these improvements. Findings also suggested that benefits can potentially be optimized by tailoring exercise time and intensity.
Humans leave their 'footprints' on the land area all around the globe. These land-use changes play an important role for nutrition, climate, and biodiversity. Scientists have now combined satellite data with statistics from the past 60 years and found that global land-use changes affect about 32 percent of the land area. This means that they are about four times as extensive as previously estimated.
A reduction in the amount of fresh, light-colored snow in parts of Greenland is exposing older, darker snow. The research reports on new weather patterns and explains how the changing shape of snowflakes on the surface is leading to conditions on Greenland's ice sheet, including possibly increased melting.
The way in which banks react to climate risks and uncertainty could impact financial stability as well as the world's transition to a low-carbon economy. A new study explored the role that banks' expectations about climate-related risks will play in fostering or hindering an orderly low-carbon transition.
The development of dementia late in life is associated with abnormal blood levels of dozens of proteins up to five years earlier, according to a new study. Most of these proteins were not known to be linked to dementia before, suggesting new targets for prevention therapies.
A randomized double-blind controlled trial of convalescent plasma for adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19 found that mortality at 28 days in the treatment arm was half the rate seen in the control arm (12.6 percent vs. 24.6 percent), although treatment was not associated with other improvements in clinical status.
The ocean is a big place with many deep, dark mysteries. Humans have mapped no more than 20% of the sea, and explored less. Even the kelp forests of Southern California -- among the best studied patches of ocean on the planet -- hide species not yet described by science.
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ZAR1 also contributes to resistosome pentamerization by forming an α-helical barrel that interacts with the leucine-rich repeat and winged-helix domains. Structural remodeling and fold switching during activation release the very N-terminal amphipathic α helix of ZAR1 to form a funnel-shaped structure that is required for the plasma membrane association, cell death triggering, and disease resistance, offering clues to the biochemical function of a plant resistosome.