Scientists have measured the masses of the giant planets of the V1298 Tau system, just 20 million year old. Masses for such young giant planets had not been obtained previously, and this is the first evidence that these objects have already reached their final size at very early stages of their evolution.
Ocean pollution is unfortunately becoming more commonplace, raising concerns over the effect of chemicals that are leaching into the water. In a new study, researchers have discovered how these chemicals can affect the reproduction in common anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris.
Scientists have collaborated to build a structurally-motivated deep learning method built from recent advances in neural language modeling. The team's deep-learning model, called D-SCRIPT, was able to predict protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from primary amino acid sequences.
The brain is indeed a target for treating ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), scientists have discovered. This flips a long-standing belief the disease starts in the spinal motor neurons and any therapy would need to target the spine as the key focus. The new study shows the brain degenerates early in ALS, sends warning signals and shows defects very early in the disease. Degeneration of brain motor neurons is not merely a byproduct of the spinal motor neuron degeneration, as had been previously thought.
Three-dimensional fault models are generally more accurate than two-dimensional line models at sending ground shaking alerts to the correct areas as part of an earthquake early warning system, according to a new study.
Researchers have developed an approach to print skin equivalents, which may play a future role in facilitating the healing of chronic wounds. They used suspended layer additive manufacturing, creating a gel-like material to support the skin equivalent that can then support a second phase of gel injection. During printing, the skin layers are deposited within the support gel. After printing, the team washed away the support material, leaving behind the layered skin equivalent.
Our understanding of how microscopic structure and changes in the shape of food affect food texture remains underdeveloped, so researchers from Denmark and Germany conducted a series of experiments relating food microstructure and rheology to texture. They used coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy to relate the molecular makeup of the fat in foods with the rheological and mechanical properties of the food. The foods in question: foie gras and pâté.
Pound for pound, the brain consumes vastly more energy than other organs, and, puzzlingly, it remains a fuel-guzzler even when its neurons are not firing signals called neurotransmitters to each other. Now researchers have found that the process of packaging neurotransmitters may be responsible for this energy drain.
Researchers found that probiotics significantly improve the symptoms of pregnancy-related nausea, vomiting and constipation. Nausea and vomiting affect about 85% of pregnancies and can significantly impact quality of life, particularly during early pregnancy.
Business leaders and management experts often encourage people to speak up in the workplace. Suggesting a creative idea or a more efficient way to work can help companies overcome challenges and meet goals. But new research shows another, more subtle and often overlooked form of speaking up has a big effect on the way work gets done and how teams come together.
The UN climate conference in Glasgow in 2021 had a clear message: climate adaptation is required of everyone; from governments to individuals around the world. Researchers have now investigated the drivers of what motivates or hinders people in different cultures in climate adaptation.
A small clinical trial has found that eating during the nighttime -- like many shift workers do -- can increase glucose levels, while eating only during the daytime might prevent the higher glucose levels now linked with a nocturnal work life.
Researchers designed a new nanoparticle adjuvant that may be more potent than others now in use. Studies in mice showed it significantly improved antibody production following vaccination against HIV, diphtheria and influenza.
Researchers have used electron energy loss spectroscopy to directly measure the coefficient of thermal expansion at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material SrTiO3. The researchers identified differences in the coefficient of expansion depending on the grain boundary. In addition to revealing the thermal properties of SrTiO3, the findings demonstrate the potential of EELS for probing materials for a wide range of industries.
Physicists said they have finally experimentally documented quantum spin liquids, a long sought-after exotic state of matter. The work marks a big step toward being able to produce this elusive state on demand and to gain a novel understanding of its mysterious nature.
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo-electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ZAR1 also contributes to resistosome pentamerization by forming an α-helical barrel that interacts with the leucine-rich repeat and winged-helix domains. Structural remodeling and fold switching during activation release the very N-terminal amphipathic α helix of ZAR1 to form a funnel-shaped structure that is required for the plasma membrane association, cell death triggering, and disease resistance, offering clues to the biochemical function of a plant resistosome.